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I. China Statistical Yearbook 2011 is an annual statistical publication, which reflects comprehensively the economic and social development of China. It covers data for 2010 and key statistical data in recent years and some historically important years at the national level and the local levels of province, autonomous region and municipality directly under the Central Government.II. The Yearbook contains twenty-five chapters : l. General Survey; 2. National Accounts; 3. Population; 4. Employment and Wages; 5. Investment in Fixed Assets; 6. Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation; 7. Energy; 8. Government Finance; 9. Price Indices; 10. People’s Living Conditions; 11. General Survey of Cities; 12. Resources and Environment; 13. Agriculture; 14. Industry; 15. Construction; 16. Transport, Postal and Telecommunication Services; 17. Wholesale and Retail Trades; 18. Hotels, Catering Services and Tourism; 19. Financial Intermediation; 20. Education, Science and Technology; 21. Public Health and Social Services; 22. Culture and Sports; 23. Public Management and Others; 24. Main Social and Economic Indicators of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR); 25. Main Social and Economic Indicators of Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR). Two chapters listed as Appendices are Main Social and Economic Indicators of Taiwan Province and A Comparison of Indicators of Economy and Society among the People’s Republic of China and Other Countries/Regions. To facilitate readers, the Brief Introduction at the beginning of each chapter provides a summary of the main contents of the chapter, data sources, statistical scope, statistical methods and historical changes. At the end of each chapter, Explanatory Notes on Main Statistical Indicators are included.III. The national data in this book do not include those of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Macao Special Administrative Region and the Taiwan Province, except for the divisions of administrative areas, the area of the national territory and forest resources. In accordance with the principles set down in the Basic Law of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the Basic Law of Macao Special Administrative Region, statistically Hong Kong, Macao and the mainland of China are three mutually independent regions, each following its own and different statistical systems and legal provisions in conducting statistical operations independently. Statistics on the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region as included in this yearbook are provided by the Census and Statistics Department of the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Statistics and Census Services of the Government of Macao Special Administrative Region respectively; and are edited by the National Bureau of Statistics. IV. Eastern region, middle region, western region and northeastern region in the Yearbook are divided as following:Eastern 10 provinces (municipalities) include: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan;Middle 6 provinces include: Shanxi, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei and Hunan;Western 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) include: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang;Northeastern 3 provinces include: Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang.V. In comparison with China Statistical Yearbook 2010, following revisions have been made in this new version in terms of the statistical contents and in editing: The original chapters of “Culture, Sports and Public Health” and “Social Services and Others” are split and merged into chapters of “Public Health and Social Services”, “Culture and Sports” and “Public Management and Others”. Statistics of basic units are added into the Chapter of General Survey. Statistics of The Second National Census on R&D Resources are added to the Chapter of Education, Science and Technology. Relevant statistics in the Chapter of Resources and Environment, Transport, Postal and Telecommunication Services, Culture and Sports, Public Health and Social Services are increased in different degree. Historical data are adjusted in the Chapter of Population according to the Sixth Population Census.VI. The units of measurement used in this yearbook are internationally standard measurement units, and newly published and implemented Product Categories are uniformly used.VII. Statistical discrepancies on totals and relative figures due to rounding are not adjusted in the Yearbook.VIII. Notations used in the yearbook：(blank space) indicates that the figure is not large enough to be measured with the smallest unit in the table, or data are unknown, or are not available; “#” indicates a major breakdown of the total; and “*”or “①”indicates footnotes at the end of the table. About the notations in the chapters of Hong Kong SAR and Macao SAR, please refer to the brief introduction in relevant chapters.